A population-based randomised trial of prostate cancer screening will be carried out. A total of 67,000 men aged 55-67 in Helsinki an Tampere are randomised to intervention (screening) or control arm. A reduction in harms of screening in the form of overdiagnosis is sought, while retaining as much as possible of the mortality benefit (reduction in prostate cancer mortality). Novel methods that have been shown to increase specificity for clinically relevant prostate cancer but never tested in a randomised setting will be employed in screening and diagnostics.
The main end-point is incidence of advanced cancer at 10 years, but the trial has also large enough sample size to detect a substantial reduction in prostate cancer mortality.